How Many Countries Signed The Paris Agreement In 2016
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In terms of employment, the clean energy sector already employs more than 3 million Americans – about 14 times the number of people employed in the coal, gas, oil and other fossil fuel industries – and has the potential to invest more in energy efficiency, renewable energy and grid upgrades to replace aging coal infrastructure. Implementation of the Clean Power Plan alone could create more than half a million jobs by 2030. Meanwhile, coal jobs are not so “relocated from America” – another Trump assertion – because they are victims of market forces, renewable energy and natural gas prices are falling. While the enhanced transparency framework is universal and the global inventory is carried out every five years, the framework must provide “integrated flexibility” to distinguish the capabilities of developed and developing countries. In this context, the Paris Agreement contains provisions to improve the capacity-building framework.  The agreement recognizes the different circumstances of some countries and notes, in particular, that the technical review of experts for each country takes into account the specific capacity of that country to report.  The agreement also develops a capacity-building initiative for transparency to help developing countries put in place the necessary institutions and procedures to comply with the transparency framework.  The Kyoto Protocol, an environmental treaty adopted at COP3 in Japan in 1997, is the first time that nations have agreed on country-specific emission reduction targets. The protocol, which only came into force in 2005, set binding emission reduction targets only for industrialized countries, based on the fact that they are responsible for most of the world`s high greenhouse gas emissions. The United States first signed the agreement, but never ratified it; President George W. Bush argued that the agreement would hurt the U.S. economy because developing countries such as China and India would not be included.
In the absence of the participation of these three countries, the effectiveness of the treaty was limited, as its objectives covered only a small fraction of total global emissions. While mitigation and adjustment require more climate funding, adjustment has generally received less support and has mobilized fewer private sector actions.  A 2014 OECD report showed that in 2014, only 16% of the world`s financial resources were devoted to adaptation to climate change.  The Paris Agreement called for a balance between climate finance between adaptation and mitigation, highlighting in particular the need to strengthen support for adaptation from the parties most affected by climate change, including least developed countries and small island developing states. The agreement also reminds the parties of the importance of public subsidies, as adjustment measures receive less public sector investment.  John Kerry, as Secretary of State, announced that the United States would double its grant-based adjustment funding by 2020.  The Paris Agreement has a bottom-up structure, unlike most international environmental treaties that are “top down,” characterized by internationally defined standards and objectives and must be implemented by states.  Unlike its predecessor, the Kyoto Protocol, which sets legal commitment targets, the Paris Agreement, which focuses on consensual training, allows for voluntary and national objectives.  Specific climate targets are therefore politically promoted and not legally binding.